2 Petrus 2:1 Men också falska profeter uppstod bland folket, likasom jämväl bland er falska lärare ska komma att finnas vilka på smygvägar ska införa fördärvliga partimeningar och dra över sig själva plötsligt fördärv i det att de till och med förneka den Herre som har köpt dem. 2 De ska få många efterföljare i sin lösaktighet och för deras skull skall sanningens väg bli smädad.
2 Petrus 2:1 But there were false prophets also among the people even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. 2 And many shall follow their pernicious ways by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of.
För enkelhetens skull så översätter jag verserna direkt från grekiskan här så att andemeningen blir tydlig.
Vers 1 Precis av samma skäl som Gud förr sände falska profeter till folket för att testa deras kärlek. Så kommer Gud igen att sända falska profeter in bland nya testamentets folk för att testa dem om de älskar (Agape) honom. Dessa falska profeter kommer att införa läror som splittrar och leder till fördärvet för dem som följer dem. Dessa läror kommer tillslut att leda dem så långt bort från Herren att de till slut inte kommer att ha honom som Herre i sitt hjärta och därför heller inte i sin mun.
Vers 2 Det kommer att vara flertalet av dem i kristenheten som kommer att följa dem ut ur Kristus (EX) och in i världen. Och när de följer den här nya vägen så kommer de att i sitt förblindade tillstånd tala illa och förnedra den gamla goda vägen.
Det här händer idag framför våra ögon dessa falska profeter hånar nu den goda vägen och småler i sitt högmod åt de som vill gå den ”gammalmodiga” korsets väg.
Nej! Nu förespråkar man istället nya metoder och förkastar korsets väg, man försöker att samla så mycket folk som möjligt istället för kvalitet. Man förkastar undervisningen om Gud istället ersätts predikningarna med mänsklig inspirationsförmåga och olika metoder.
5 Mos 13:1 Om en profet eller en som har drömmar uppstår bland dig, och han utlovar åt dig något tecken eller under 2 och sedan det tecken eller under, verkligen inträffar, varom han talade med dig, i det att han sade Låt oss efterfölja och tjäna andra gudar som I inte känner 3 så skall du ändå inte höra på den profetens ord eller på den drömmaren, ty HERREN er Gud, sätter er därmed allenast på prov för att förnimma om I älskar (Agape) HERREN er Gud av allt ert hjärta och av all er själ. 4 HERREN er Gud ska I efterfölja, honom ska I frukta hans bud ska I hålla hans röst ska I höra,
Blir du inspirerad av deras själsliga metoder eller dröjer du kvar hos Herren? Det är precis det som kommer att vara frågan. Följer du efter dem så dör all din urskiljning och du blir lika blind som de och hamnar til slut i gropen (Skökan)
2Pe_2:1-22. False teachers to arise: Their bad practices and sure destruction, from which the godly shall be delivered, as Lot was.
But — in contrast to the prophets “moved by the Holy Ghost” (2Pe_1:21).
also — as well as the true prophets (2Pe_1:19-21). Paul had already testified the entrance of false prophets into the same churches.
among the people — Israel: he is writing to believing Israelites primarily (see on 1Pe_1:1). Such a “false prophet” was Balaam (2Pe_2:15).
there shall be — Already symptoms of the evil were appearing (2Pe_2:9-22; Jud_1:4-13).
false teachers — teachers of falsehood. In contrast to the true teachers, whom he exhorts his readers to give heed to (2Pe_3:2).
who — such as (literally, “the which”) shall.
privily — not at first openly and directly, but by the way, bringing in error by the side of the true doctrine (so the Greek): Rome objects, Protestants cannot point out the exact date of the beginnings of the false doctrines superadded to the original truth; we answer, Peter foretells us it would be so, that the first introduction of them would be stealthy and unobserved (Jud_1:4).
damnable — literally, “of destruction”; entailing destruction (Phi_3:19) on all who follow them.
heresies — self-chosen doctrines, not emanating from God (compare “will-worship,” Col_2:23).
even — going even to such a length as to deny both in teaching and practice. Peter knew, by bitter repentance, what a fearful thing it is to deny the Lord (Luk_22:61, Luk_22:62).
denying — Him whom, above all others, they ought to confess.
Lord — “Master and Owner” (Greek), compare Jud_1:4, Greek. Whom the true doctrine teaches to be their OWNER by right of purchase. Literally, “denying Him who bought them (that He should be thereby), their Master.”
bought them — Even the ungodly were bought by His “precious blood.” It shall be their bitterest self-reproach in hell, that, as far as Christ’s redemption was concerned, they might have been saved. The denial of His propitiatory sacrifice is included in the meaning (compare 1Jo_4:3).
bring upon themselves — compare “God bringing in the flood upon the world,” 2Pe_2:5. Man brings upon himself the vengeance which God brings upon him.
swift — swiftly descending: as the Lord’s coming shall be swift and sudden. As the ground swallowed up Korah and Dathan, and “they went down quick into the pit.” Compare Jud_1:11, which is akin to this passage.
But there were false prophets also among the people – In the previous chapter, 2Pe_2:19-21, Peter had appealed to the prophecies as containing unanswerable proofs of the truth of the Christian religion. He says, however, that he did not mean to say that all who claimed to be prophets were true messengers of God. There were many who pretended to be such, who only led the people astray. It is unnecessary to say, that such men have abounded in all ages where there have been true prophets.
Even as there shall be false teachers among you – The fact that false teachers would arise in the church is often adverted to in the New Testament. Compare Mat_24:5, Mat_24:24; Act_20:29-30.
Who privily – That is, in a secret manner, or under plausible arts and pretences. They would not at first make an open avowal of their doctrines, but would, in fact, while their teachings seemed to be in accordance with truth, covertly maintain opinions which would sap the very foundations of religion. The Greek word here used, and which is rendered “who privily shall bring in,” (παρεισάγω pareisagō,) means properly “to lead in by the side of others; to lead in along with others.” Nothing could better express the usual way in which error is introduced. It is “by the side,” or “along with,” other doctrines which are true; that is, while the mind is turned mainly to other subjects, and is off its guard, gently and silently to lay down some principle, which, being admitted, would lead to the error, or from which the error would follow as a natural consequence. Those who inculcate error rarely do it openly. If they would at once boldly “deny the Lord that bought them,” it would be easy to meet them, and the mass of professed Christians would be in no danger of embracing the error. But when principles are laid down which may lead to that; when doubts on remote points are suggested which may involve it; or when a long train of reasoning is pursued which may secretly tend to it; there is much more probability that the mind will be corrupted from the truth.
Damnable heresies – αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας haireseis apōleias. “Heresies of destruction;” that is, heresies that will be followed by destruction. The Greek word which is rendered “damnable,” is the same which in the close of the verse is rendered “destruction.” It is so rendered also in Mat_7:13; Rom_9:22; Phi_3:19; 2Pe_3:16 – in all of which places it refers to the future loss of the soul The same word also is rendered “perdition” in Joh_17:12; Phi_1:28; 1Ti_6:9; Heb_10:39; 2Pe_3:7; Rev_17:8, Rev_17:11 – in all which places it has the same reference. On the meaning of the word rendered “heresies,” see the Act_24:14 note; 1Co_11:19 note. The idea of “sect” or “party” is that which is conveyed by this word, rather than doctrinal errors; but it is evident that in this case the formation of the sect or party, as is the fact in most cases, would be founded on error of doctrine.
The thing which these false teachers would attempt would be divisions, alienations, or parties, in the church, but these would be based on the erroneous doctrines which they would promulgate. What would be the particular doctrine in this case is immediately specified, to wit, that they “would deny the Lord that bought them.” The idea then is, that these false teachers would form sects or parties in the church, of a destructive or ruinous nature, founded on a denial of the Lord that bought them. Such a formation of sects would be ruinous to piety, to good morals, and to the soul. The authors of these sects, holding the views which they did, and influenced by the motives which they would be, and practicing the morals which they would practice, as growing out of their principles, would bring upon themselves swift and certain destruction. It is not possible now to determine to what particular class of errorists the apostle had reference here, but it is generally supposed that it was to some form of the Gnostic belief. There were many early sects of so-called “heretics” to whom what he here says would be applicable.
Even denying the Lord that bought them – This must mean that they held doctrines which were in fact a denial of the Lord, or the tendency of which would be a denial of the Lord, for it cannot be supposed that, while they professed to be Christians, they would openly and avowedly deny him. To “deny the Lord” may be either to deny his existence, his claims, or his attributes; it is to withhold from him, in our belief and profession, anything which is essential to a proper conception of him. The particular thing, however, which is mentioned here as entering into that self-denial, is something connected with the fact that he had ““bought”” them. It was such a denial of the Lord “as having bought them,” as to be in fact a renunciation of the uniqueness of the Christian religion. There has been much difference of opinion as to the meaning of the word “Lord” in this place – whether it refers to God the Father. or to the Lord Jesus Christ. The Greek word is Δεσπότης Despotēs. Many expositors have maintained that it refers to the Father, and that when it is said that he had “bought” them, it means in a general sense that he was the Author of the plan of redemption, and had causeD them to be purchased or redeemed. Michaelis supposes that the Gnostics are referred to as denying the Father by asserting that he was not the Creator of the universe, maintaining that it was created by an inferior being – Introduction to New Testament, iv. 360. Whitby, Benson, Slade, and many others, maintain that this refers to the Father as having originated the plan by which men are redeemed; and the same opinion is held, of necessity, by those who deny the doctrine of general atonement. The only arguments to show that it refers to God the Father would be,
(1) that the word used here Δεσπότην Despotēn is not the usual term (κύριος kurios) by which the Lord Jesus is designated in the New Testament; and,
(2) that the admission that it refers to the Lord Jesus would lead inevitably to the conclusion that some will perish for whom Christ died.
That it does, however, refer to the Lord Jesus, seems to me to be plain from the following considerations:
(1) It is the obvious interpretation; that which would be given by the great mass of Christians, and about which there could never have been any hesitancy if it had not been supposed that it would lead to the doctrine of general atonement. As to the alleged fact that the word used, Δεσπότης Despotēs, is not that which is commonly applied to the Lord Jesus, that may be admitted to be true, but still the word here may be understood as applied to him. It properly means “a master” as opposed to a servant; then it is used as denoting supreme authority, and is thus applied to God, and may be in that sense to the Lord Jesus Christ, as head over all things, or as having supreme authority over the church. It occurs in the New Testament only in the following places: 1Ti_6:1-2; Tit_2:9; 1Pe_2:18, where it is rendered “masters;” Luk_2:29; Act_4:24,; Rev_6:10, where it is rendered “Lord,” and is applied to God; and in Jud_1:4, and in the passage before us, in both which places it is rendered “Lord,” and is probably to be regarded as applied to the Lord Jesus. There is nothing in the proper signification of the word which would forbid this.
(2) the phrase is one that is properly applicable to the Lord Jesus as having “bought” us with his blood. The Greek word is ἀγοράζω agorazō – a word which means properly “to market, to buy, to purchase,” and then to redeem, or acquire for oneself by a price paid, or by a ransom. It is rendered “buy” or “bought” in the following places in the New Testament: Mat_13:44, Mat_13:46; Mat_14:15; Mat_21:12; Mat_25:9-10; Mat_27:7; Mar_6:36-37; Mar_11:15; Mar_15:46; Mar_16:1; Luk_9:13; Luk_14:18-19; Luk_17:28; Luk_19:45; Luk_22:36; Joh_4:8; Joh_6:5; Joh_13:29; 1Co_7:30; Rev_3:18; Rev_13:17; Rev_18:11 – in all which places it is applicable to ordinary transactions of “buying.” In the following places it is also rendered “bought,” as applicable to the redeemed, as being bought or purchased by the Lord Jesus: 1Co_6:20; 1Co_7:23, “Ye are ‘bought’ with a price;” and in the following places it is rendered “redeemed,” Rev_5:9; Rev_14:3-4. It does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament. It is true that in a large sense this word might be applied to the Father as having caused his people to be redeemed, or as being the Author of the plan of redemption; but it is also true that the word is more properly applicable to the Lord Jesus, and that, when used with reference to redemption, it is uniformly given to him in the New Testament. Compare the passages referred to above.
It is strictly and properly true only of the Son of God that he has “bought” us. The Father indeed is represented as making the arrangement, as giving his Son to die, and as the great Source of all the blessings secured by redemption; but the “purchase” was actually made by the Son of God by his sacrifice on the cross. Whatever there was of the nature of “a price” was paid by him; and whatever obligations may grow out of the fact that we are purchased or ransomed are due particularly to him; 2Co_5:15. These considerations seem to me to make it clear that Peter referred here to the Lord Jesus Christ, and that he meant to say that the false teachers mentioned held doctrines which were in fact a “denial” of that Saviour. He does not specify particularly what constituted such a denial; but it is plain that any doctrine which represented him, his person, or his work, as essentially different from what was the truth, would amount to such a denial.
If he were Divine, and that fact was denied, making him wholly a different being; if he actually made an expiatory sacrifice by his death, and that fact was denied, and he was held to be a mere religious teacher, changing essentially the character of the work which he came to perform; if he, in some proper sense, “bought” them with his blood, and that fact was denied in such a way that according to their views it was not strictly proper to speak of him as having bought them at all, which would be the case if he were a mere prophet or religious teacher, then it is clear that such a representation would be in fact a denial of his true nature and work. That some of these views entered into their denial of him is clear, for it was with reference to the fact that he had bought them, or redeemed them, that they denied him.
And bring upon themselves swift destruction – The destruction here referred to can be only that which will occur in the future world, for there can be no evidence that Peter meant to say that this would destroy their health, their property, or their lives. The Greek word (ἀπώλειαν apōleian) is the same which is used in the former part of the verse, in the phrase “damnable heresies.” See the notes. In regard, then, to this important passage, we may remark:
(1) that the apostle evidently believed that some would perish for whom Christ died.
(2) if this is so, then the same truth may be expressed by saying that he died for others besides those who will be saved that is, that the atonement was not confined merely to the elect. This one passage, therefore, demonstrates the doctrine of general atonement. This conclusion would be drawn from it by the great mass of readers, and it may be presumed, therefore, that this is the fair interpretation of the passage.
(See the supplementary 2Co_5:14 note; Heb_2:9 note for a general view of the question regarding the extent of the atonement. On this text Scott has well observed: “Doubtless Christ intended to redeem those, and those only, who he foresaw would eventually be saved by faith in him; yet his ransom was of infinite sufficiency, and people are continually addressed according to their profession.” Christ has indeed laid down such a price as that all the human family may claim and find salvation in him. An unhappy ambiguity of terms has made this controversy very much a war of words. When the author here says, “Christ died for others besides those who will be saved,” he does not use the words in the common sense of an actual design, on the part of Christ to save everyone. The reader will see, by consulting the notes above referred to, how much disputing might be saved by a careful definition of terms.)
(3) it follows that people may destroy themselves by a denial of the great and vital “doctrines” of religion. It cannot be a harmless thing, then, to hold erroneous opinions; nor can men be safe who deny the fundamental doctrines of Christianity. It is truth, not error, that saves the soul; and an erroneous opinion on any subject may be as dangerous to a man’s ultimate peace, happiness, and prosperity, as a wrong course of life. How many men have been ruined in their worldly prospects, their health, and their lives, by holding false sentiments on the subject of morals, or in regard to medical treatment! Who would regard it as a harmless thing if a son should deny in respect to his father that he was a man of truth, probity, and honesty, or should attribute to him a character which does not belong to him – a character just the reverse of truth? Can the same thing be innocent in regard to God our Saviour?
(4) people bring destruction “on themselves.” No one compels them to deny the Lord that bought them; no one forces them to embrace any dangerous error. If people perish, they perish by their own fault, for:
(a) ample provision was made for their salvation as well as for others;
(b) they were freely invited to be saved;
(c) it was, in itself, just as easy for them to embrace the truth as it was for others; and,
(d) it was as easy to embrace the truth as to embrace error.